Al-Wasiyya

1) Abu Umama al-Bahili reported: I heard Allah’s Messenger (Sall Allah-o-alaihe wa sallam) say during the course of his sermon in the year of the Farewell Pilgrimage: Verily, Allah has assigned to everyone who has a right what is due to him. So no will is lawful in favour of an heir. The child belongs to the (lawful) husband and for the adulterer is stoning. Their reckoning rests with Allah. He who claims someone his father who is not his father or a client attributes himself to a master who is not his master, on him rests Allah’s curse till the day of resur­rection. A woman should not expend anything belonging to her spouse except with his permission. It was said: “Allah’s Messenger, even the food”? He said: “That is the best of our property.” He further said: “Things taken on loan are to be returned; a goat borrowed for milk is to be returned; a debt is to be repaid and one who stands surety is held responsible.”


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2) ‘Amir b. Sa‘d reported on the authority of his father (Sa‘d b. Abi Waqqas): Allah’s Messenger (Sall Allah-o-alaihe wa sallam) visited me in my illness which brought me near death in the year of Hajjat-ul-Wada’ (Farewell Pilgrimage). I said: “Allah’s Messenger (Sall Allah-o-alaihe wa sallam), you can well see the pain with which I am afflicted and I am a man possessing wealth, and there is none to inherit me except only one daughter. Should I give two-thirds of my property as sadaqa?” He said: “No.” I said: “Should I give half (of my property) as sadaqa?” He said: “No.” He (further) said: “Give one-third (in charity) and that is quite enough. To leave your heirs rich is better than to leave them poor, begging from people; that you would never incur an expense seeking therewith the pleasure of Allah, but you would be rewarded therefore, even for a morsel of food that you put in the mouth of your wife.  I said: “Allah’s Messenger, (Sall Allah-o-alaihe wa sallam) would I survive my companions?” He (the Holy Prophet) said: “If you survive them, then do such a deed by means of which you seek the pleasure of Allah, but you would increase in your status (in religion) and prestige; you may survive so that people would benefit from you, and others would be harmed by you.” [The Holy Prophet (Sall Allah-o-alaihe wa sallam)] further said: “Allah, complete for my Companions their migration, and not cause them to turn back upon their heels.” Sa‘d b. Khaula is, however, unfortunate. Allah’s Messenger (Sall Allah-o-alaihe wa sallam) felt grief for him as he had died in Mecca.

3) Humaid b. ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Himyari reported from three of the sons of Sa‘d all of whom reported from their father that Allah’s Apostle (Sall Allah-o-alaihe wa sallam) visited Sa‘d as he was ill in Mecca. He (Sa‘d) wept. He (the Holy Prophet) said: “What makes you weep?” He said: “I am afraid I may die in the land from where I migrated as Sa‘d b. Khaula had died.” Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (Sall Allah-o-alaihe wa sallam) said: “O Allah, grant health to Sa‘d. O Allah grant health to Sa‘d.” He repeated it three times. He (Sa‘d) said: “Allah’s Messenger (Sall Allah-o-alaihe wa sallam), I own a large property and I have only one daughter as my inheritor. Should I not will away the whole of my property?” He (the Holy Prophet) said: “No.” He said: “(Should I not will away) two-thirds of the property?” He (the Holy Prophet) said: “No.” He (Sa‘d again) said: “(Should I not will away) half (of my property)?” He said: “No.” He (Sa‘d) said: “Then one-third?” Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: “(Yes), one-third, and one-third is quite sub­stantial. And what you spend as charity from your property is sadaqa and your spending on your family is also sadaqa, and what your wife eats from your property is also sadaqa, and that you leave your heirs well off (or he said: prosperous) is better than to leave them (poor and) begging from people.” He (the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him) pointed this with his hands.

 

Source: Economic Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him): A Select Anthology of Hadith Literature on Economics, Muhammad Akram Khan. Republished with permission.