Modes of Financing - Introduction
The concept of musharakah and mudarabah envisaged in the books of Islamic Fiqh generally presumes that these contracts are meant for initiating a joint venture whereby all the partners participate in the business right from its inception and continue to be partners upto the end of the business when all the assets are liquidated. One can hardly find in the traditional books of Islamic Fiqh the concept of a running business where partners join and leave the enterprise without affecting in any way the continuity of the business. Obviously, the classical books of Islamic Fiqh were written in an environment where the large scale commercial enterprises were not in vogue and the commercial activities were not so complex as they are today. Therefore, they did not generally dwell upon the question of such a running business.
However, it does not mean that the concept of musharakah and mudarabah cannot be used for financing a running business. The concept of musharakah and mudarabah is based on some basic principles. As long as these principles are fully complied with, the details of their application may vary from time to time. Let us have a look at these basic principles before entering the details:
(1) Financing through musharakah and mudarabah does never mean the advancing of money. It means to participation in the business and in the case of musharakah, sharing in the assets of the business to the extent of the ratio of financing.
(2) An investor / financier must share the loss incurred by the business to the extent of his financing.
(3) The partners are at liberty to determine, with mutual consent, the ratio of profit allocated to each one of them, which may differ from the ratio of investment. However, the partner who has expressly excluded himself from the responsibility of work for the business cannot claim more than the ratio of his investment.
(4) The loss suffered by each partner must be exactly in the proportion of his investment.
- Available with the kind permission of Skeikh Muhammad Taqi Usmani
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